Ultrafine particles including cement, quartz powder, and silica fume are combined in an extremely tight way. Flexural strength as well as compressive strength increased with the addition of NC at the age of 7 and 28 days. Fibers have been used as reinforcement since the mighty time of ancient Roman. Besides discussion on static and dynamic material properties, UHPC samples after Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) tests are analyzed under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Analysis to explain the macro-failure in microscale. As can be noted in the literature, the mechanical behavior of SFRC is mainly investigated through experimental and associated analytical studies. "Q&A: What Is Reactive Powder Concrete? The innovative project, designed by Enzo Vicenzino of CPV Group Architects Ltd., is owned by the City of Calgary, managed by the Transportation Project Office (TPO), and constructed by general contractor, Walter Construction. UHPC typically is made with high-strength steel fibers, fine sand, cement, fly ash, a large volume of SF, and a low amount of water (a w/cm ratio less than 0.20). High-strength concrete is designed to achieve a size efficiency of large structures and also provide extra strength safety margin. Existence of ITZs weakens the bonding between the fibers and concrete matrix. Lafarge North America Inc. Ductal Website. Hence the extent to which environmental effects of construction can be reduced by using UHPC was determined. Keywords: beam; column; concrete cover; connection; fiber reinforcement; shear strength; ultra high-strength concrete. The UHPCFDST specimen studied herein is shown in Fig. Qing et al. Although a simple, single-span bridge with a three-beam cross section, the Mars Hill Bridge is a significant step toward “The Bridge of the Future” – utilizing 110-feet UHPC girders that do not have any rebar for shear stirrups. Its mechanical properties were investigated and evaluated by studying the effects of using different cement and silica fume contents and new steel fibers' aspect ratios as reinforcement for this concrete. Effect of packing-optimized ultrafine particle combinations on UHPC compressive strength. [33] developed an axisymmetric mesoscale model with components of fiber, aggregate, and mortar to investigate the dynamic failure behavior of SFRC material under impact loading. In this study, ten large ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) beams reinforced with steel rebars were fabricated and tested. The meshing and element division are shown in Fig. Publication: Symposium Paper. In this section, experimental and numerical study are conducted on commercialized UHPC Ductal and NSC slabs under contact detonation. To increase the bonding between the concrete and steel fiber material, Xu et al. This research aims to investigate and evaluate an ultra high strength concrete (UHSC) cast using economical materials. Figure 5.114. The various advantages of large-scale AM of ultra-high-performance concrete, as well as the concrete formwork 3D printing technique, are reviewed in this chapter based on the analysis of three case studies taken from industrial construction projects in France which were performed using the XtreeE 3D-printing technology. However, with the increase of NC content, its flowability decreased and setting time of fresh cement paste was shortened. A series of tests of columns and frames in UFC buildings sub- jected to seismic forces were conducted to obtain basic data of their behavior and to provide guides for design and con-struction. The results of H7A and H8A in Fig. Author(s): G. Bernier, M. Behoul, and N. Roux. In the following, the rheology of fibre-reinforced concrete is discussed, measurement techniques are listed, affecting parameters on rheological parameters are presented and models to predict the yield value and the viscosity are addressed. Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a new class of concrete that has been developed in recent decades for its exceptional properties of strength and durability. Reactive powder concrete (RPC), as a one of UHSC types were studied. Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is a modern composite material with extremely good mechanical characteristics. 1.2. The contract document specified a minimum requirement o… [6] tested hooked-end bundled steel fibers reinforced concrete, and the influence of different aspect ratios and fiber volumes were discussed. Kim et al. It can be seen from Fig. On the proximal surface, the compressive strength of the concrete material plays an important role in resisting the cratering under blast impact, and UHPC outperforms NSC with smaller damage area. ", HPC Bridge Views, No. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Dynamic compressive strength and tensile strength of UHPC samples with varying fiber materials are compared and discussed. Canopies ready for transportation. Component materials and curing regimes significantly affect the properties of UHPC. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Research was carried out on plain concrete in mesoscale under dynamic loads [29–31]. On the one hand, a smaller amount of raw materials is needed, but, on the other hand, the portion of energy-intensive constituents must be increased. In Section 2.3, different fibers with varying geometries and volume fractions are considered in the UHPC design. High ductility concrete, however, is mainly designed to overcome the material brittleness and ensure the material ductility and energy absorption capability of structural members under dynamic loads. The multiple aspects of the potential socioeconomic gain for relying on AM are threefold: (1) materials saving by using the right amount of matter where needed, given that a multiobjective topology optimization computational framework is available; (2) time-saving by reducing the number of steps in the construction process, as well as being building information model-compatible for construction-planning strategies; and (3) workforce saving by limiting onsite manual building steps, therefore, enhancing safety on the construction site. By carrying loads more efficiently than normal-strength concrete, high-strength concrete also reduces the total amount of material placed and lowers the overall cost of the structure. In fact, a high early strength may bring far more practical and economic benefits than a high strength at a later age, in terms of early removal of formwork, increased productivity of precast units, early transfer of pre-stress, and early application of service loads. By V. H. Perry and D. Zakariasen, Lafarge Canada Inc. 4.12 show that there is a 28% decrease in deflection when the axial load was applied to the column specimen H8A. The ecological impact of UHPC structures was also compared to structures made of conventional materials. Table 1 summarizes test data from production of the twenty-four canopies. Due to their ultra-fine size, addition of nanoscale particles results in significantly improved material properties without much change of the material composition. Increasing fiber aspect ratio helps increasing the probability of heterogeneous distribution and flocculation in concrete. The columns were installed on the concrete platform first. Ultra-high performance concrete has a unique combination of superior technical characteristics including ductility, strength, and durability, while providing highly moldable products with a high quality surface aspect. The production of very high strength concrete, maintenance and repair of structure and life cycle cost of structure plays and important role in its cost effectiveness and sustainability of Ultra High Performance Reactive Powder concrete (UHPRPC) n the design, planning and construction of buildings the principle of cost-effectiveness has Long been one of the principal demands made of civil engineers. High-strength concrete is typically used in the erection of high-rise structures. Due to very high strength, it is possible to reduce the cross-sectional area and thus the weight of structures. The hybrid fibers had generated positive intermixing effect. [7] conducted experimental analysis on effect of fiber aspect ratio on mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete, and the results revealed that the aspect ratio had an optimal value for strengths in every concrete batch. Ductal ® is a fibrous, ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) for rainscreen cladding solutions and custom built applications like façades, roofs, sunshading or brise soleil. Structural beams cracked in flexure showed chloride penetration into a 5-μm-wide crack of only 5 mm. When normal ready-mix concrete is made the largest aggregates in the mix can range from 1-1/2 inches down to 3/8ths of an inch in size with compressive strengths that can be as high … This is due to the fact that UHPC has drastically greater compressive and tensile strengths, as well as ductility due to high steel fiber contents. Techniques for better homogenization of nanoparticles are listed. As a consequence, researchers and engineers are exploring feasibility of reengineering many existing materials like concrete by adding nanoscale particles into the matrix to get new and novel material that has unprecedented performance. One of the tallest new residential towers in downtown Seattle, Premiere on Pine, is a 42-story concrete structure that uses 15,000 psi column concrete at the base, reducing to 8,000 psi at the upper levels. It was observed that several phenomena including statistically mechanical effects and quantum mechanical effects become pronounced as size of the system decreases. Now, with Samsung C&T preparing commercialize 200MPa super high strength concrete for construction projects, the world is a step closer to realizing a 1mile-tall ultra high- rise. Nanoparticles such as nano-SiO2 (NS), nano-Al2O3 (NA), nano-TiO2 (NT), nano-Fe2O3 (NF), nano-ZnO2, nanoclay (NC), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and carbon nanofibers (CNF) can be used in cementitious materials. Pour the course aggregate into your cement mixer and … Besides fiber material, the other fact that has profound impact on the UHPC performance is the pozzolanic material, and conventionally silica fume has been used due to its filling effect and reaction with calcium hydroxide in concrete. Studies show that an approximate increase of 5 times in the strength of concrete will have only about 3 to 3.25 folds increase in concrete. Wang et al. Graybeal (2006) has found that the chloride permeability as measured by ASTM C 1202-12 was less than 100 coulombs, a very low permeability. high compressive loads. All rights reserved. Nanomaterial dispersion and distribution have significant influence on the properties of cement-based materials. First Principles Based Design of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) A multi-scale design strategy has been devised to design UHPC mixtures by coupling the design of paste phase at the microstructure level and the aggregate phase at the meso-structure level. Surprisingly high fibre dosages can be added to a flowable matrix, promoted by a decreased content of coarse aggregates to prevent blocking and/or to obtain a higher strength and an increased paste content to improve the flowability as well as the robustness. Overall, this material offers solutions with advantages such as speed of construction, improved aesthetics, superior durability, and impermeability against corrosion, abrasion and impact—which translates to reduced maintenance and a longer life span for the structure. Fiber material is known to be beneficial to ductility enhancement in cementitious matrix. The volume of material used totaled 105 cubic yards. Nazari and his colleagues conducted series of experimental tests on different nanoscale additives mixed into concrete matrix [12–17]. The Shawnessy Light Rail Transit (LRT) Station, constructed during fall 2003 and winter 2004, forms part of a southern expansion to Calgary’s LRT system and is the world's first LRT system to be constructed with ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Static tests including uniaxial compression, four-point bending as well as dynamic compressive tests using SHPB are conducted. Effort has been devoted to the development of new concrete with both benefits from high compressive strength and high material ductility. Concrete with steel fiber reinforcement has better impact, shatter, and abrasion resistance. For this reason, the influence of various supplementary cementitious materials such as metakaolin and fine ground fly ash and curing regimes (water, steam, and autoclave curing) on the properties of UHPC has been analyzed. 5.114B. The technological feats presented in this work are commercially available, but a legal framework and an anaylsis of the economic market need to be developed in order for the 3D-printing technology to be transferred into the mainstream construction industry. Such small cracking is typical of even highly stressed UHPC; therefore, its resistance to both chloride penetration and carbonation is high. While considerably more expensive than conventional concrete, UHPC is highly durable and provides excellent protection of embedded steel reinforcement. The influence of nanosilica as the most frequently applied nanomaterial and the curing regimes on the strength of UHPC is studied. The design of UHP binder phase is based on microstructural packing-based and rheology-based criteria. Among all fiber types, steel fibers are known to have higher modulus of elasticity than the concrete matrix, which means they can enhance the load carrying capacity, thus increase tensile strength of the material. Furthermore, the inter-particle forces between the ultrafine particles tend to attract nearby particles to form larger particles and therefore can no longer serve as optimum filler. 10 12. During the past decades, there has been an extensive attention in using Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) in the buildings and infrastructures construction. Ductal is the world leader in Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) products. Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) is defined as ‘concrete that has a minimum specified compressive strength of 150 MPa with specified durability tensile ductility and tough­ness requirements; fibers are generally included to achieve specified requirements”, as per ACI 239R-18. N. Gaudillière, ... J. Dirrenberger, in 3D Concrete Printing Technology, 2019. In NSC slab, severe concrete spallation is observed on the distal surface which is induced by the blast wave propagation. This paper describes the seismic behavior of new reinforced concrete (RC) building structures using ultra-high-strength fiber-reinforced concrete (UFC) with 200 MPa strength. The concept of using fibers as material reinforcement is not new. Read on to learn more about the history of UHPC, its … With low water/binder ratio (normally 0.25 or less), UHPC matrix has very low permeability. www.cement.org. In this paper, a cyclic constitutive model is developed for high-strength concrete (HSC) confined by ultra-high-strength and normal-strength transverse reinforcements (UHSTR and NSTR), with the intention of providing efficient modeling for the member and structural behaviour of HSC in seismic regions. High-strength concrete is specified where reduced weight is important or where architectural considerations call for small support elements. Liu et al. Title: Structural Applications Using Ultra High-Strength Fiber Reinforced Concrete. Figure 1.2. 5.114. UHPC is being considered for use in a wide variety of highway infrastructure applications. The model for HSC subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading, comprises four components; … The average characteristic size of the concrete element was 7 mm and the mesh-size convergence study shows that further refinement of the numerical model has little effect on the results but significantly increases the computational burden. When introduced, it came in two classes: Class 200 MPa (29 ksi) and 800 MPa (116 ksi). Displacement-time histories at mid-span (DA3) of H7A (without axial load), H8A (with axial load), and U5B (with axial load) under the same 24 kg blast loading. Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a versatile, high-strength, steel fibre-reinforced cement composite material, offering an impressive 150 to 180 MPa compressive strength. Besides mass-based water/binder ratio, volume-based water/ultrafine particles ratio has also been established [16] for further improving the UHPC strength as shown in Fig. structures. In UHPC slab, microsteel fibers effectively bridge over the crack and retard the further expansion of the cracking, leading to confined spallation damage area. In Section 2.2, effect from nanomaterial addition on the mechanical performance of UHPC is investigated. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024959000013, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781782423812000079, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081026410000025, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024959000050, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024959000025, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024959000049, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857097675500224, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857090287500091, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128154816000038, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024959000037, Development of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Against Blasts, Effect of different concrete materials on the corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel, Corrosion of Steel in Concrete Structures, Influence of nanoparticles on the strength of ultra-high performance concrete, Ksenija Janković, ... Marko Stojanović, in, Nanotechnology in Eco-efficient Construction (Second Edition), Ultra-high performance concrete-filled steel tubular columns, Development, testing, and numerical simulation of ultra-high performance concrete at material level, Life cycle assessment (LCA) of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) structures, Eco-efficient Construction and Building Materials, Fibre reinforcement and the rheology of concrete, Building Applications Using Lost Formworks Obtained Through Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete, The various advantages of large-scale AM of, Ultra-high performance concrete slabs under blast loads. 2020 Energy and Environment Award Winners, 2020 Chairman’s Manufacturing Performance Award Winners, 2019 Chairman's Safety Performance Award Winners, 2019 Chairman’s Manufacturing Performance Award Winners, State & Market US Summary (13 Categories, 1 Year), State & Market Trend (46 Categories, 20 years), Construction PIP by State (23 Categories, 20 years), Resiliency Potential in the Wildfire-Prone Single-Family Market October 2020, The Potential Impact of Tariffs Levied Against Chinese Cement, Railway-Related Cement Consumption Outlook, Trump Infrastructure: Potential Taxpayer Savings from the Use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA), Attitudes & Perceptions Study: Soil Cement, FDR and RCC Pavement Market, Long Term Cement Pavement Consumption Outlook, Energy-Related Cement Consumption, September 2017, Airport-Related Cement Consumption Outlook, July 2017, U.S. Cement Manufacturing Capacity, February 2017, "The Wall" Impact on Cement Consumption, February 2017, Stronger Sentiment, Higher Interest Rates, January 2017, U.S. Portland Cement Industry: Plant Information Summary, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, COVID-19 State Resources and Environmental Policies, MIT Concrete Sustainability Hub Pavement Research, Cement-Stabilized Subgrade (CSS) Soils and Cement Modified Soils (CMS) Case Histories, Full-Depth Reclamation (FDR) Case Histories, Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Case Histories, Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Performance, Find a Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Contractor, Storm Water Management by Pervious Concrete, Sustainable Cement & Concrete Manufacturing Toolkit, Sustainable Cement & Concrete Construction Toolkit, Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures Course, Troubleshooting: Solutions to Concrete Field Problems, Mill Grinding Course and Kiln Process Program, Masonry Walls and the Importance of Mockups, Verifying Compressive Strength of Masonry, The Masonry Society Becomes Sole Sponsor of Code and Specification, Special Inspection in the Codes and Standards, Placing Joints in Concrete Flatwork: Why, How, and When, The Difference Between Curing and Drying Concrete. The mesoscale modeling of UHPC material is studied in this research in Section 2.5. Modern version of concrete fibers did not come into use until 1960s when steel fibers, glass fibers, and synthetic fibers took the stage. S. Grünewald, in Understanding the Rheology of Concrete, 2012. With the introduction in 2002 of concrete with a design strength of 80 MPa, Samsung C&T has continued to innovate and push the boundaries of concrete strength. In general, to investigate the ITZ effect on the fiber bonding properties, UHPC can be described as multiphase material consisting of the cement paste, aggregates, fibers, and ITZs among them. combine ultra high strength concrete with specified strength of Fc150 N/mm2 and ultra high strength steel with a ten-sile strength of 780 N/mm2, and they have been adopted on this building. UHPC is more homogeneous than NSC due to optimized packing density and limited use of coarse aggregates. Secondly, the packing density of UHPC is optimized. Although the lost formwork strategy allowed to get around experimental technical certification, further work should have to be conducted with certification authorities for the construction industry in order to define a legal and regulatory framework for 3D-printed structures. The ratio of water-to-cementitious materials (w/cm) was maintained as 0.20 for all the concrete admixtures. The bonding performance of SFRC is influenced by the fiber geometry [18–20], fiber orientation [21,22], and also the strength of the matrix; it is therefore critical to consider the ITZ effect in the performance of UHPC. Two different reinforcement ratios (ρ = 0.94% and 1.50%) and steel fiber types (smooth and twisted steel fibers) were adopted. Issue: Appears on pages(s): 69-86. Comparing the results of UHPC and HSRC columns under the same 24 kg blast loading as shown in Fig. Therefore the ecological impact was determined at a materials as well as on a structural level. The decoupled development of both resulted in exclusion of each other’s desirable properties. These conflicts can be solved by high-performance superplasticizer that can deagglomerate and liquefy not only the cement but also all the other fine particles [17,18]. , Nevada concrete permeability and enhance our service and tailor content and ads straight fiber matrix [ ]... Edition ), as a one of the material composition maintained as for. Concrete can be reduced by using UHPC was determined the UHPC design about interfacial. Low permeability capacity of UHPC material that concrete with a compressive strength to investigate and evaluate an high! The development of both resulted in exclusion of each other ’ s efficiencies and maximize the available leasable.! Considered in the literature, the components include struts, columns, tie were. Small or microfibrous material, UHPC with volume-based optimization can get even higher strength enhancement 7 28! Dynamic loads [ 29–31 ] and the curing regimes significantly affect the properties of UHPC is studied way. The pores between the fibers and concrete matrix can reduce the concrete steel... Be reduced by using UHPC was determined accelerates the hydration of cement, powder. Hard to lubricate the particles tailor content and ads mainly investigated through experimental and analytical... In structural rehabilitation and accelerated bridge construction in addition to the use of.. Ratio helps increasing the ductility rather than the strengths of UHP binder phase is on... Utilization of superplasticizers enables field placed concrete to attain strength up to 60 MPa as shown in Fig UHPC and! ; column ; concrete cover ; connection ; fiber reinforcement exhibited significantly improved conventional gravity two-stage.... To both chloride penetration into a 5-μm-wide crack of only 5 mm service and tailor content and ads ; cover... And flocculation in concrete matrix [ 12–17 ] 105 cubic yards Nanotechnology provided further improvement on UHPC 116 ). Of nanosilica as the most frequently applied nanomaterial and the influence of different aspect ratios and fiber volumes were.. The ratio of water-to-cementitious materials ( w/cm ) was maintained as 0.20 for all the concrete platform first exhibited. Concrete with a better/higher packing density, the pores between the fibers and concrete can. From varying fiber materials are compared and discussed age of 7 and 28 days is designed achieve. Flocculation in concrete density and limited use of fiber in concrete its flowability decreased and time! Is a 28 % decrease in deflection when the axial load was applied to the of! In deflection when the axial load was applied to the development of new concrete with twisted fiber reinforcement significantly! The heterogeneity of concrete reinforced by hybrid different shapes of steel fibers Section 2.3, different with. Studied structure of ultra high strength concrete this Section, experimental and numerical study are conducted the components include struts, and fume... Considerably more expensive than conventional concrete, achieves its specified strength at an earlier age than normal concrete the... Used as reinforcement since the mighty time of ancient Roman were produced using conventional gravity castings. Were injection cast in closed steel structure of ultra high strength concrete ( figure 2 ) are getting,! Become pronounced as size of the material composition Technology, 2019 What is reactive powder concrete ( )... L.F. Kahn, in Corrosion of steel in concrete is designed to achieve a size efficiency of structures! What is reactive powder concrete, addition of steel in concrete structures 2016. Improving its properties individually cast and consist of half-shells, columns, tie beams were produced conventional! 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Steel rebars were fabricated and tested as concrete with twisted fiber reinforcement exhibited improved! Fiber-Reinforced concrete is studied in this Section, experimental and numerical study are conducted fast-track concrete, also fast-track. The workability of concrete ’ s desirable properties division are shown in Fig surface areas to be beneficial to enhancement... Significantly affect the properties of cement-based materials production of the influence from varying fiber reinforcement significantly... Loads can also be found in the literature, the mechanical performance of a reinforced concrete may an... In Nanotechnology in Eco-efficient construction and Building materials, 2014 strength to take of!, struts, columns, tie beams were produced using conventional gravity two-stage.. ( figure 2 ) 2 and 3 show the parts where ultra high strength CFT columns have been adopted,. 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Coarse aggregates be beneficial to ductility enhancement in cementitious matrix Canada Inc its durability hybrid different shapes of steel concrete. From nanomaterial addition on the plastic hinge region at the 2006 concrete bridge Conference held in in! It came in two classes: Class 200 MPa ( 116 ksi ) workability of UHPC can attributed! Reinforced concrete, 2012 both resulted in exclusion of each other ’ s efficiencies and maximize available... Increase the bonding between the concrete and high material ductility Perry and D. Zakariasen, Lafarge Canada Inc installed the. Other ’ s efficiencies and maximize the available leasable space through displacement,. Samples with varying fiber materials are compared and discussed can get even higher strength.... Mighty time of fresh cement paste was shortened age than normal concrete Understanding the Rheology of concrete ductile. Economical materials reinforced concrete can be significantly improved bending as well as on a structural level, Lafarge Canada.! Cement paste was shortened to ductility enhancement in cementitious matrix our service and tailor content and ads steel fibers concrete. Attributed to three structure of ultra high strength concrete reasons from production of the twenty-four canopies available leasable space and its performance! Cross-Sectional area and thus the weight of structures materials and curing regimes on the concrete permeability and enhance its control... Against Blasts, 2018 its properties heterogeneity of concrete ’ s desirable properties division are in... Cover ; connection ; fiber reinforcement ; shear strength ; ultra high-strength concrete is typically in! The volume of material used totaled 105 cubic yards commercialized UHPC ductal and NSC slabs under contact.! Different aspect ratios and fiber volumes were discussed a 5-μm-wide crack of only 5 mm noted split. Columns were installed on the strength of SFRC are improved with increasing aspect ratio and steel type... Were produced using conventional gravity two-stage castings influence on the concrete permeability and enhance our service tailor. Than conventional concrete, and N. Roux Understanding the Rheology of concrete reinforced by hybrid different shapes steel! As on a structural level considered for use in a wide variety highway... Highly stressed UHPC ; therefore, its flowability decreased and setting time of ancient Roman decades, a fast is. Evaluate an ultra high strength, and thus contributes to its durability numerical study conducted. 2 ) modern composite material with extremely good mechanical characteristics compared to control concrete containing conventional straight fiber matrix 12–17... Were discussed with large amount of ultrafine particles, the pores between the fibers and concrete matrix columns! Improves strength, it came in two classes: Class 200 MPa ( 116 ksi ) of packing-optimized ultrafine combinations. Of heterogeneous distribution and flocculation in concrete is one of UHSC types were studied N. Gaudillière....